Socilogical researches

June 24, 2011

The summary of the report “Regional tolerance and extremism in Ukraine”

When citing or otherwise using the materials of the report, it is obligatory to give the link to www.ihrpex.org. Any copying or reproduction of this text or any part thereof in any form with any purpose, except private use, without the written consent of the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia is illegal.

June 2011 

The Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia (IHRPEX)

Kyiv International Institute of Sociology

 The summary of the report: “REGIONAL TOLERANCE AND EXTREMISM IN UKRAINE”

 CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH

 The Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) within the framework of cooperation with the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia (IHRPEX) in June 2011 carried out the representative sample interview of adult population of Ukraine. The questions, which were studied during the research, were devoted to the problem of extremism and regional tolerance in Ukraine. The report is devoted to the results of this research. 

The poll was carried out by way of personal interview (face to face), 2040 respondents, at the age of 18 and older, living in 110 different centers of population (villages, towns and cities of all oblasts and Crimea, and in Kyiv), by the four-stage stochastic at each state sampling, were questioned. 

The sampling was based on random selection of postal areas across Ukraine (in all 24 oblasts of Ukraine and AR of Crimea). The process of sampling was based on a random selection of streets, houses and apartments within each postal area. The final stage was a random selection of respondents within households. 

The statistical error of sampling with a probability of 0.95 does not exceed 

          2,3% - for indices close to 50%,  

          2,0% - for indices close to 25% and 75%,  

          1,5% - for indices close to 12% and 88%,  

          1,0% - for indices close to 5% and 95%,   

          0,5% - for indices close to 1% and 99%,  

          0,2% - for indices close to 0,2% and 99,8%. 

(The provided theoretical values ​​of statistical error do not take the design effect into account; for most indices, the influence of design of applied in the poll stochastic sampling increases the error by not more than 1.5 times).  

REGIONAL TOLERANCE 

Almost half of Ukrainians (44%) consider that there are no such regions in Ukraine, where the population has completely different political views. 11% of adult residents of Ukraine called Galychynasuch region, 7% - Donbas, 5% - Bukovyna. In comparison with February 2011 the number of those, who called one or another region, did not change. 

The residents of the West of Ukraine more frequently called territories of Southern and Eastern Ukraine (18% of residents of the West called Donbas and 9% called Crimea), and the residents of the latter two regions called Western Ukraine (23% of residents of Southern region and 31% of residents of Eastern region called one of the territories of Western Ukraine). Residents of Central Ukraine approximately equally called both Western Ukraine (14% called one of the territories of the West), and Southern/Eastern Ukraine (11%). 

If in February 2011 38% of respondent is Southern Ukraine considered that there is some region, where, according to their opinion, the population has the most different political views, than in June 2011 the number of such respondents reduced to 27%. Instead, in the East of Ukraine the number of such people increased from 28% to 35%. In addition, the number of residents of Eastern Ukraine, who called Galychyna, increased from 15% to 21%. 

The most part of residents of Western Ukraine (59%), who called one of the regions of South/East, consider that attitudes of the majority of residents of South/East hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state. In addition, almost a half of residents (42%) consider that their residents have views close to Stalinism. The same quantity of people expresses the opinion that their views are dangerous for integrity of Ukraine. However, in comparison with February 2011, there is the tendency of decrease of the number of residents of the West, who hold such opinion. Therewith, only 6% denied the right to have own opinions and only 12% expressed the opinion that the life in Ukraine would be better without these regions. 

The residents of Central Ukraine, who called one of the territories of the South/East, in whole, do not consider that their residents have views, close to fascism or Stalinism. However, 40% are sure, that the opinions of the majority of residents of South/East hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state. It is important to note that in comparison with February 2011, there is the tendency of decrease of the number of those, who consider opinions of the residents of South/East dangerous for integrity of Ukraine (from 44% to 29%). The positive index is the relatively small number of those, who denies the right to have own opinions (7%), and those, who consider that that the life would be better without these regions (13%). 

The residents of the Central region, who called one of the territories of the West, as well mostly do not consider that their views are close to fascism or Stalinism (though 28% do consider that their views are close to fascism). The most part of such residents is concerned with the fact that their views may be dangerous for integrity of Ukraine (46%) and that their opinions hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state (35%). In addition, the number of those, who hold these opinions, have the tendency to increase in comparison with February 2011, where correspondingly 34% and 13% agreed with it. One in five (19%) as well considers that the life would be better without this region. At the same time, there is a positive tendency of decrease of the number of those who denies the right to have own opinions – from 28% to 4%. 

The residents of the South region, who called one of the territories of the West, consider that their views are close to fascism (69%), are dangerous for integrity of Ukraine (75%) and hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state (51%). In addition, almost a half (43%) expressed the opinion that the life would be better without this region. However, at the same time, only 10% denied the right to have own opinions. In comparison with February 2011, the regional intolerance has noticeably increased. Thus, the number of those, who consider that the opinions of residents of the West are close to fascism, increased from 34% to 69%, and the number of those, who consider that their views hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state increased from 28% to 51%, and the number of those, who the life in Ukraine would be better without this region increased from 20% to 43%, the number of those, who consider that their views are dangerous for integrity of Ukraine increased from 58% to 75%. 

Rather great number of residents of Eastern Ukraine, who called one of the territories of the West, consider that their opinions are close to fascism (51%), dangerous for integrity of Ukraine (68%), hamper the transformation of Ukraine into a modern European state (43%). One third of respondents (32%) considers that life in Ukraine would be better without this region. In comparison with February 2011, there is a tendency of increase of the number of those, who considers the opinions of residents of the West dangerous for integrity of Ukraine (from 50% to 68%). 

Analyzing the estimation of the views of the stated regions without reference to the respondent’s place of residence, we obtain the similar results. Thus, the level of intolerance as for the Western regions is noticeably higher. Moreover, if the level of intolerance as for the regions of South/East almost did not change in comparison with February 2011, than it considerably increased as for the West. 

The integral index of the regional intolerance (calculated for those who understands the most politically opposite region for them), which changes from 0 (tolerance) to 100 (intolerance), as of June 2011 is 46.4 and is noticeably higher than it was in February 2011 (39.0). And the index increased at the expense of the increase of the level of intolerance among the residents of the East and the South, who called one of the regions of the West. Especially, this concerns residents of the South, for which the increase of the index from 41.0 to 61.3 is observed. 

Speaking about the separate regions, first of all the intolerance to Galychyna increased sharply from 41.4 to 54.5. 

EXTREMISM 

Only 8% of residents of Ukraine consider that there are no such groups, which people should get rid of. More frequently, people called terrorists (75%) and drug dealers (71%) as such groups. 23% called also homosexuals, 20% called HIV-infected, 19% - nationalists, 17% - Islamites. 

The similar views to this question are generally observed among different by age categories of population and among the residents of different regions of Ukraine and residents of different by size centers of population. 

In comparison with February 2011, there were only insignificant changes in opinions of residents of Ukraine.