Socilogical researches

April 24, 2011

The summary of the report «Thoughts and views of national minorities of Ukraine»

When citing or otherwise using the materials of the report, it is obligatory to give the link to www.ihrpex.org. Any copying or reproduction of this text or any part thereof in any form with any purpose, except private use, without the written consent of the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia is illegal.

April 2011 

The Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia (IHRPEX)

Kyiv International Institute of Sociology

 

The summary of the report: “THOUGHTS AND VIEWS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES OF UKRAINE” 

CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH 

The Kyiv International Institute of Sociology by the order of the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia carried out the poll of foreigners, who moved to Ukraine and have a certain residence status, in March-April 2011 (see Table 1.).  

The questions, studied during the research, were devoted to thoughts and views of respondents as for observance of their rights in Ukraine. This report contains the results of this research. 

Table 1. The number of respondents by residence status in Ukraine

Foreigners, who obtained citizenship of Ukraine

162

Foreigners, who have Ukrainian visa/registration/residence permit

159

Foreigners, who illegally live in Ukraine/refugees

37

Labour migrants/students

38

TOTAL

396

 In general, 396 respondents, representatives of ten ethnic groups over 18, were questioned. The number of representatives of each ethnic group, which were questioned during the research, are given in the Table 2. 

 Таблиця 2. The number of respondents by origin

 

Azerbaijani

79

Afghan

8

Armenian

67

Georgian

51

Jews

8

Hindu

10

Kazakh

20

Chinese

45

Moldavian

98

Pole

7

TOTAL

396

The research was carried out in all oblasts of Ukraine, AR of Crimea and in the city of Ukraine by way of personal interview (face to face), with adhering to the stated quotas as for the status of staying respondents in Ukraine and the country of origin. 

The search of respondents was mostly in places of accumulation of the target group and by the method of “snowball” (see Table 3). 

Table 3. Ways of search of respondents

Through the diplomatic representations

Through network of trade, service industries, construction

Through communities, association of people coming from the same area / religious organizations

Through services for refugees (International Organization for Migration etc.)

Through business and cultural centres (language cources, centres of alternative medicine)

By method of “snowball” and in places of accumulation of respondents (TLS)

 

 SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF MIGRANTS 

o          45% of respondents arrived to Ukraine during 1991-1999. The others arrived during   2000-2011. 

o          The majority of migrants from sampling were represented by such nationalities as Moldavians (25%), Azerbaijanis (20%), Armenians (17%), Georgians (13%), the Chinese (12%). Moldavians are represented a little more in the West-Centre (30% against 20% in the South-East). 

o          The absolute majority of migrants (78%) as before moving to Ukraine, as in Ukraine (91%) live mostly in urban areas. 

o          The majority of respondents (64%) either live in own apartment, or rent it independently. 

o          By their status, the majority of questioned migrants (81%) either has citizenship or has a visa / registration / residence permit, i.e. stay legally in Ukraine. Only 9% live illegally or are refugees. There is a little more of those, who are either a refugees or staying illegally in the country, in the West-Centre (13% against 6% in the South-East). 

o          Only 42% of migrants who are not citizens, are going to obtain the citizenship of Ukraine in the near future. And there are significantly more of them in the South-East - 52% against 33% in the West-Centre. 

o          Men prevail among the questioned migrants (57% against 43% of women), as well as the persons under 44 (68%), people with education, not less than secondary specialized ones (67%), married or in a civil marriage (67 %). 58% of migrants live in households with total income of UAH 1 000-5 000, 19% - UAH 5 000 and more. The absolute majority of migrants (81%) fluently speak Russian / Ukrainian with the surrounding population. 

MOVING TO UKRAINE 

o          One third of questioned migrants (30%) said that they moved to Ukraine for domestic reasons, 24% - because of lack of work / low salary, 18% - for education, 16% - due to lack of prospects for a normal life, 12% - because of transnational and military conflicts.                                                        

o          The most common factor that influenced the choice of a particular oblast (city) was the presence of their compatriots, friends and relatives (57%). As for selection of a particular region, the decisive factors were the presence of friends, children, compatriots (32%), cost of housing (20%), convenient infrastructure (18%), proximity to work (16%). 

o          Half of the migrants (48%) came to Ukraine with family, 39% - by him- or herself. 11% came with friends, acquaintances. 

o          Half of respondents (47%) reported that they did not encountered the problems during moving to Ukraine. However, others encountered one or another problem, mostly living problems (22% of all respondents have noted this problem). 

o          The absolute majority of migrants (86%) believe that their rights are either completely or more frequently observed in comparison with indigenous population of Ukraine. 

o          One third of questioned migrants (29%) experienced personally during their stay in Ukraine violations of human rights, abuse of power or position. And migrants in the South-East more frequently encountered such cases - 35% against 23% in the West-Centre. 

o          Half of the respondents (50%) who personally encountered cases of human rights violations, abuse of power or position, have not applied anywhere. 23% of respondents when their rights have been violated, addressed to friends, acquaintances, 11% - to a court, a lawyer, 10% - to the heads of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, prosecutors’ office. 

EMPLOYMENT AND SEARCH OF WORK  

o          Three quarters of respondents (74%) reported that they work currently. A relative majority of migrants (48%) work in trade. And the significant majority of employed are in the West-Centre 64% against 32% in the South-East.

 o          Half of employed migrants (56%) has official permission to work. 14% are private entrepreneurs and have license. Rest and work on the oral agreement (23%), or an entrepreneur, but do not have a license (7%). Most (62%) of those who do not have official permission, are going soon, or some time later to get it. In most cases (65%) migrants are paid in cash. 

o          20% of respondents did not work at all since coming to Ukraine. Among other migrants, 47% worked all the time in one place. A quarter of respondents (25%) changed their job every 2-3 years. Other migrants more frequently changed their place of work. Among the currently employed migrants only 10% plan to change work place soon.                

o          55% of migrants reported that they are currently not looking for work. The most popular way to search is through friends, acquaintances, relatives (36% of all migrants choose this variant). 

o          When choosing the work place the main factor is the amount of income (77% called this factor). The good working conditions are as well important (40%). 

o          18% of respondents reported about cases of problems with employment in Ukraine. One third of migrants (38%) who encountered such problems, reported that the cause was related to paperwork. Almost the same number of respondents (36%) indicated such reason as a reluctance to officially register a person. 26% said that problems with employment were connected with the unwillingness to employ foreigners, 18% - with bad working conditions. 

75% of respondents expressed confidence that indigenous people receive the same salary for similar work. 

HOME BUDGET AND EXPENSES. REST 

o          The main budget expense item (for 59%) are current expenses. And bigger share of budget is spent on this item in the South-East - 65% against 52% among migrants of West-Centre. 

o          The most important expense item are current expenses (96% of workers called this item as a very or rather important). We can also include the following items to the very important ones: creation of personal savings (68%), expenses for family entertainment, traveling, leisure (60%), financial assistance to families and relatives in native countries (58%), investments in education of children (51%). 

o          Almost half of respondents (45%) reported that they usually rest with the family in native countries. A quarter of respondents (24%), have a rest in the resorts of Ukraine, 10% - in other countries, 9% - in the village / in the country. At the same time, a quarter of respondents reported that they do not go anywhere. 

SOCIAL CIRCLE AND CONTACTS WITH LOCAL POPULATION  

o          The majority of questioned migrants (66-67%) communicate both with their compatriots, and with friends from Ukraine in informal atmosphere.  

o          For the majority of migrants (57%) it is not important, to which country / culture their relatives will belong.  

o          Also, a half of respondents (52%) reported that they communicate with their national community, compatriots, who live in Ukraine. And the absolute majority of these respondents (76%) consider their compatriots a well-organized structure. 

o          According to the words of respondents, their communities first of all deal with the arrangement of cultural and religious events (60% selected this variant) and holding of community’s meetings (54%). At the same time, a half of the questioned migrants (54%) who maintain contacts with compatriots, have no specific activities in the community. 

NATIONAL TRADITIONS AND EDUCATION. ASSESSMENT OF LIFE IN UKRAINE 

o          41% of respondents have under age children.                                                                      

o          The vast majority of migrants (65%) with children under 18, communicate with them both their native language, and Ukrainian / Russian. 

o          89% of migrants with children, acquaint them with the national culture, customs and traditions of their native country. First of all, they do it through memories, stories. 

o          In most cases (66%), migrant children study in regular school. In addition, the majority of migrants (62%) would like their children to obtain higher education exactly in Ukraine.  

o          The majority of questioned migrant parents (58%) are focused giving the latest knowledge and skills to their child rather than drawing him or her to the individual cultures. At the same time, a half of the questioned migrant parents (48%) believe that their children will remain to live in Ukraine. 

o          48% of respondents reported that their compatriots want to remain to live in the native country. One in five respondents (21%) expressed the opinion that the majority of the compatriots want to move to European countries but not in the CIS countries or Ukraine. 15% believe that the majority of compatriots want to move to Ukraine (15%). Only 6% believe that the majority of compatriots want to move to other CIS countries, but not to Ukraine. The respondents in the South-East more frequently expressed the opinion that their compatriots want to remain to live in the native country - 55% against 39% in the West-Centre. 

o          23% of respondents expressed the opinion that it is fundamentally better to live in Ukraine than currently in the native country. 21% believe, on the contrary, that it is worse to live in Ukraine than currently in the native country. 17% reported that it is better to live in Ukraine now, but in the past, it was better in the native country. One third of respondents (31%) consider that life in Ukraine is the same as in the native country. 

o          17% of respondents expressed the opinion that it is better to live in Ukraine, and 24% - that, on the contrary, it is better to live in many other CIS countries (One third of respondents (30%) expressed the belief that life in Ukraine is the same as in other CIS countries. 29% of questioned migrants were unable to answer this question. 

o          The vast majority of migrants (68%) believes that life in the EU countries is better than in Ukraine. 

LEVEL OF TOLERANCE.RELATIONS WITH INDIGENOUS POPULATION 

The vast majority of migrants or members of their family (80%) did not encounter a hostile attitude of the local population. Among those who encountered it, 74% reported that these were random people, 32% - representatives of law enforcement authorities, 23% - representatives of local authorities, 11% - colleagues. First of all, it was in the form of offence (36%), negative attitude (31%), extorting a bribe (19%).  

In most cases, the questioned migrants are integrated into communication with the local population and may, for example, freely address to them for help, feel that they respect their culture and so on. Integration index is 78 points (by a 100-point scale, where 0 - Minimal integration, 100 - maximum integration). The respondents of South-East are more integrated - 80 points against 76 points in the West-Centre.

 The majority of the questioned migrants (60%) consider that lately life in Ukraine became calmer. 

The most acceptable are the following relationships with Ukrainians: personal friendship (4.1 by a 5-point scale, where 1 - the least acceptable, and 5 - the most appropriate relationships), neighborhood (4.1), colleagues (4.0). A little less acceptable (though also acceptable) are the following ones: a joint recreation (3.7), family relationship (3.6). Relatively the least acceptable is the common business (3.3). It is also important to note that in addition to joint business and family relations, in other cases migrants, questioned in the South-East show higher acceptability in comparison with migrants of West-Centre.  

PUBLIC ACTIVITY 

o          72% of migrants reported that they regularly communicate with their compatriots in the native country.  

o          75% of respondents reported that they do not participate in social or political life of Ukraine. At the same time, if there are 16% of questioned migrants in the West-Centre, which at least from time to time participate in social or political life, than there are 32% of them in the South-East. 

o          Only 8% of respondents reported that they support some Ukrainian party or public organization. At the same time, there are significantly more of them in the South-East than in the West-Centre - 12% against 4%.