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Socilogical researches

May 22, 2012

Brief report about sociological poll “Regions of Ukraine in images and stereotypes of mass consciousness”

When citing or otherwise using the materials of the report, it is obligatory to give the link to www.ihrpex.org. Any copying or reproduction of this text or any part thereof in any form with any purpose, except private use, without the written consent of the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia is illegal. 

 

REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN IMAGES AND STEREOTYPES OF MASS CONSCIOUSNESS 

Brief report about sociological poll 

The research carried out by the Institute of Human Rights and Prevention of Extremism and Xenophobia (www.ihrpex.org) together with Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (www.kiis.com.ua) became one of the attempts to find grounded responses to the challenges of regionalism in modern Ukraine. The field stage was carried out on April 12-16, 2012 in 110 places. During the poll with the help of personal interview, 1019 questionnaires were filled in. The error of representativeness of sample excluding design effect with confidence figure 0.95 does not exceed 3.1% for binomial proportion 50:50. 

Table 1.

 

Social and territorial identification of respondents (in view of region)

 

 

West

Centre

Southeast

Kyiv

Crimea

IN WHOLE

By a resident of an area or a city

24,3%

21,1%

28,6%

24,5%

17,0%

25,1%

By a resident of an oblast

4,3%

5,4%

5,6%

1,9%

10,6%

5,2%

By a resident of region (several neighbouring oblasts)

0,9%

2,9%

2,7%

1,9%

8,5%

2,6%

By a citizen of Ukraine

57,8%

62,8%

47,5%

56,6%

34,0%

53,4%

By a representative of the ethnic group, nation

2,6%

0,4%

1,8%

0,0%

4,3%

1,7%

By a citizen of former Soviet Union

1,3%

5,0%

9,2%

3,8%

17,0%

6,5%

By a European

3,9%

1,7%

1,4%

0,0%

0,0%

1,8%

By a citizen of the world

0,9%

0,7%

1,8%

5,7%

4,3%

1,7%

Other

3,1%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

2,1%

0,8%

Find difficulty in replying

0,9%

0,0%

1,4%

5,6%

2,2%

1,2%

TOTAL

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

 

 


Diagram 1. Social and territorial identification of respondents (in view of region)

 


Diagram 2. Share of persons, who visited another region of Ukraine for at least one time (in view of region)

 

Table 2.

 

Region, the political views of residents of which, according to opinion of a respondent, differ from his or her own the most

West

54,2%

Southeast

15,7%

Centre

2,6%

Kyiv

5,9%

Crimea

21,6%

 

Table 3 –  Table 7.

 

Views of many residents of a region are close to fascism

 

 

West, %

Southeast, %

Centre, %

Kyiv, %

Crimea, %

Completely disagree

53

72,1

71,2

71,7

71,3

Rather disagree

10,6

11,4

12

11

9,7

Difficult to say definitely

20

15,1

15,3

15

16

Rather agree

11,5

1,1

1

1,9

2,4

Completely agree

4,9

0,3

0,5

0,5

0,6

 

Views of many residents of a region are close to Stalinism

 

 

West, %

Southeast, %

Centre, %

Kyiv, %

Crimea, %

Completely disagree

69,5

52,6

60,8

63,7

57,1

Rather disagree

8,6

13,7

13,6

13,3

11,2

Difficult to say definitely

17,8

21,6

21

20,7

22,1

Rather agree

2,4

8,2

3,5

1,8

6,3

Completely agree

1,7

4

1

0,6

3,3

 

Views of majority of residents of a region hamper the transformation of Ukraine into modern European country

 

 

West, %

Southeast, %

Centre, %

Kyiv, %

Crimea, %

Completely disagree

53,9

45,7

53,8

58,1

46,2

Rather disagree

9,4

12

15,1

14,8

12

Difficult to say definitely

22,3

28,9

25,9

21,5

27,3

Rather agree

7,9

9,3

2,9

3,3

8,5

Completely agree

6,4

4,2

2,2

2,3

6

 

Views of majority of residents of a region are dangerous for integrity of Ukraine

 

 

West, %

Southeast, %

Centre, %

Kyiv, %

Crimea, %

Completely disagree

56,3

58,8

65,7

68,5

53,1

Rather disagree

8,4

11,4

11,4

10,4

9,7

Difficult to say definitely

17,5

21,1

20,3

18,6

20,7

Rather agree

9,5

5,9

2,2

1,9

9,8

Completely agree

8,3

2,8

0,4

0,7

6,7

 

Life in Ukraine would be better without this region

           

 

West, %

Southeast, %

Centre, %

Kyiv, %

Crimea, %

Completely disagree

64,2

72

73,7

73

70,9

Rather disagree

5,9

6

6,8

7,1

7,1

Difficult to say definitely

19,6

17,1

16,2

17,3

16,7

Rather agree

3,7

2

1,3

0,6

1,8

Completely agree

6,7

2,8

2,1

1,9

3,6

 


Diagram 3. What is Your attitude to Ukrainian politicians admitting discriminatory or slanderous expressions about one of the regions of Ukraine? %

 

Table 8.

 

What may unite the regions of Ukraine? % to all responses in view of region

 

 

Ukraine

in whole

West

Centre

Southeast

Kyiv

Crimea

Common history

9,8%

8,4%

11,8%

9,2%

12,1%

10,8%

Rich cultural traditions

7,1%

5,9%

8,1%

8,0%

5,3%

2,7%

Religion

5,0%

5,5%

5,8%

4,7%

5,3%

1,8%

Ukrainian as single state language

6,1%

10,3%

7,5%

3,9%

6,1%

0,9%

National ideology

5,2%

6,3%

4,1%

5,0%

4,5%

5,4%

National leader

6,5%

6,1%

4,1%

8,1%

7,6%

1,8%

Joining the Eurasian Union of Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus by Ukraine

4,3%

1,5%

2,1%

5,5%

2,3%

19,8%

Joining the European Union by Ukraine

3,6%

6,3%

1,0%

3,5%

4,5%

0,9%

Struggle for the rights

5,6%

5,9%

7,3%

4,7%

8,3%

0,9%

Restoration of industry and agriculture

11,6%

9,7%

9,8%

12,3%

11,4%

23,4%

Adequate standards of living for each person

19,4%

17,5%

16,6%

21,6%

14,4%

25,2%

I do not consider that the regions of Ukraine are separated

12,2%

13,1%

17,6%

10,1%

12,1%

2,7%

Other (specify)

0,6%

0,8%

0,0%

0,9%

0,8%

1,9%

Nothing

0,8%

0,6%

2,1%

0,3%

1,5%

0,9%

Find difficulty in replying

2,2%

2,1%

2,1%

2,2%

3,8%

0,9%

 

* To the number of responses           

           


Diagram 3.3. Index of attitude to “typical” residents of Ukraine, %

 

Diagram 4. Configuration of qualities of “typical” representatives of the regions of Ukraine in two-dimensional semantic space (from the point of view of respondents living outside the estimated region)

 

RESUME

 

1.         The carried out research shows that rather formed stereotype images of “typical” residents of regions of Ukraine are available in mass consciousness. Features inherent in “typical” resident of one or another region may be divided into 3 groups: a) endogenous features, i.e. characteristics peculiar to a “typical” resident of a region according to opinion of respondents living in this region (not in other regions); b) exogenous features, i.e. characteristics peculiar to a “typical” resident of a region according to opinion of respondents living in other regions (not in this one); c) consolidated features, i.e. characteristics peculiar to a “typical” resident of a region according to opinion of the majority of respondents regardless their place (region) of residence. 

2.         Regional stereotypes of residents of the Crimea are fuzzy in comparison with residents of other regions. It is also possible to say that in mass consciousness of Ukrainians, the consolidated image of a “typical” resident of the Crimea is not quite formed. Perhaps, it is connected both with the territorial and, first of all, historical peculiarity of the region, which joined Ukraine (Ukrainian SSR) only in 1954, and obtained the present status of the autonomous republic only in 1990. 

3.         Based on the consolidated features of images of “typical” residents of the regions of Ukraine, it is possible to make the conclusion about existence of some image of “typical” Ukrainian, which is in any event available in each regional stereotype images. If to summarize our data, than “averaged” Ukrainian is intelligent, educated and hard-working, but at the same time, partly arrogant, rude, dependent and stingy. The fullest expression of virtue of a “typical” Ukrainian is in the stereotype image of a resident of Kyiv. However, diligence is less peculiar to them in comparison with residents of other regions (stereotype resident of the West is the most hard-working), and the main vice, according to opinion of respondents, is arrogance very annoying for residents of other regions. “Typical” resident of the Southeast of Ukraine is less independent in comparison with residents of the West, Central region and Kyiv. 

4.         The data show that both in the Southeast and in the West, respondents idealize residents of Central regions. This characteristics is peculiar to attitude to the neutral group in the identification “friend-or-foe” with availability of two groups, which estimate each other critically. 

5.         If to place the regions of Ukraine in some imaginary space of qualities (semantic space), than it appears that the stereotype image of a resident of the West in mass consciousness of Ukrainians is held away from images of residents of other regions. At the same time, stereotype images of residents of the Southeast and Centre, as well as Kyiv and the Crimea are correspondingly approximate. 

6.         The biggest influence on negative perception of residents of other region is exerted by such social and demographic signs as region of residence and age. Thus, mutual negative stereotypes are spread among the considerable part of residents of the West and Southeast. Regional identification (who is a person for himself or herself first of all – a citizen of Ukraine, a resident of his or her city, oblast, etc.) and availability of close friends in other regions are also significant for forming of regional stereotypes. 

7.         More than a half of respondents of those, who answered the relevant question, considers that views of residents of the Western region differ from their own political views the most. At the same time, only 16% consider these views as close to fascism. Also, none of opinions “Views of majority of residents of a region hamper the transformation of Ukraine into modern European country”, “Views of majority of residents of a region are dangerous for integrity of Ukraine”, “Life in Ukraine would be better without this region” obtained more than 20% of support of respondents. This is the evidence of the relatively high “external” tolerance in relations of Ukrainians from different regions to each other. Almost 60% considers that tension in relations between regions is absent or almost absent. Those with opposite point of view are sure that residents of different regions may be united by ensuring of adequate standards of living for each person (43%), restoration of industry and agriculture (25.8%) and common history (21.8%). 

8.         53.8% of respondents declared that politicians, admitting discriminatory or slanderous expressions about one of the regions of Ukraine, must incur a liability for them, and not only the moral one.